Pianotech

Expand all | Collapse all

Hammer Technique

  • 1.  Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 14 days ago
    I am continuing this discussion started in a different thread on Hearing Damage.

    I just finished tuning a grand which gets delivered tomorrow :-)
    Koval Mild Victorian Temperament per the new owner's request and my recommendation.

    I can't conceive how a Long NSL has a different tension than a Short NSL. It has a different pitch due to its length. Maybe a factor is proportional: tension/length.
    But each reacts to torsion flexing about the same, the shorter being more sensitive. How does one actually measure the tension in a confined string segment?

    The short NSL's were more reactive to pin movement (torsion control) than the longer ones.

    It wasn't until I started using a Counter Bearing Lubricant, that I realized the ability to fine-tune because of the improved ability to read minor torsion flexing and pitch motion.
    Having a Verituner helps to see even the most minute of variations.

    ------------------------------
    Regards,

    Jon Page
    mailto:jonpage@comcast.net
    http://www.pianocapecod.com
    ------------------------------


  • 2.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 13 days ago
    Because our job as tuners is to equalize tensions in the SL and NSL's, by definition, the tension in the SL segments, and NSL's, will be equal, or very close to each other. If the tension is not pretty darn close, the SL pitch will not be stable.

    This means tension is a non-negotiable given in all the segments. NSL pitch will be dependent on NSL length * tension * string mass (in this case indicated by diameter).

    I think you are referring actually to elasticity, and not tension. There is elasticity to consider in the various NSL's which have different lengths. The longer the length and the smaller the diameter of the wire, the greater the elasticity.

    I totally agree about the minute information the ETD (I use Only Pure) affords you when reading fine tuning movements of torsion flex effects on elasticity and tension.  This aspect of an ETD, gets me really stable settings with hammer technique alone. I do not strike the key hard ever...it hurts both my hands and my ears, and makes the whole tuning process a chore.




    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 3.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 13 days ago

    I totally agree about the minute information the ETD (I use Only Pure) affords you when reading fine tuning movements of torsion flex effects on elasticity and tension.  This aspect of an ETD, gets me really stable settings with hammer technique alone. I do not strike the key hard ever...it hurts both my hands and my ears, and makes the whole tuning process a chore.
    Jim Ialeggio,  04-30-2021 17:29


    I'll add my hearty agreement to the above. My ear is really good, and I usually like my aural tunings a bit better than most RCT calculations. That being said, I have learned something about hammer technique that would have been hard with only aural tuning. Not impossible, but almost impossible. For this alone, the ETD has been worth it.

    ------------------------------
    John Formsma, RPT
    New Albany MS

    Live not by fear or lies.
    ------------------------------



  • 4.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 12 days ago
    Yesterday, I tuned a Bechstein grand with 2.5~3" c/b felt expanses. The application of a counter bearing lubricant made reading pin flex instantaneous,
    almost like it had c/b bars instead. No drag or ratcheting wires.

    Koval Mild Vic (my default temperament) made the piano glow. My custom stretch was the icing on the cake :-)

    ------------------------------
    Regards,

    Jon Page
    mailto:jonpage@comcast.net
    http://www.pianocapecod.com
    ------------------------------



  • 5.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 12 days ago
    I'll add my data obtained from experimentation and measurement.

    We cannot measure NSL tension directly. I've looked into strain gauges. They don't make them small enough. We have to infer tension changes from pitch changes.

    The pitch of the string with the long NSL does not react to pin movements not because of friction, but because of length. Look up Hooke's Law which basically says a long spring of length L doesn't change tension when elongated by a length of x as much as a short spring of length ℓ. In fact, the change in tension of the long spring will be only a fraction of the change in the short spring and that fraction is ℓ / L .

    The pitch of a string with a short NSL is very sensitive to pin movement due to Hooke's Law.

    String segments can never be equal due to friction at the bearing points.

    During hard blows, the speaking length of a string is higher because the string is longer. Think of the string being "stretched" during a hard blow. The shortest distance between two points is a straight line which is what we have when the string is at rest.

    Hard blows do not equalize string segment tensions. Hard blows equalize tensions that exist during the hard blow, which produces the higher speaking length tension. After hard blows, the speaking length tension reduces, v-bar/agraffe friction leaves the NSL tension higher; hard blows actually produce unequal tensions.

    Hooke's Law says movement at the bridge is minute due to the long speaking length. Move the string at the V-bar and the string will move at the bridge by a fraction. String movement at the lower termination point is not an issue with fine tuning.

    High friction causes NSL to behave like a longer NSL. Low friction causes NSL to behave like a shorter NSL.
    E.g. a long NSL can result in the pin moving and pitch not changing; Long NSL tension are not sensitive to pin movements (Hooke's Law).
    But adding a lubricant lowers friction and now the NSL behaves like a shorter NSL; Short NSL tension are very sensitive to pin movements and the pitch will follow the pin movement more closely. (Hooke's Law).

    This effect is noticeable in other situations like short NSL where the pressure bar is not low enough. Very little friction results in the NSL behaving like an even shorter NSL where every little pin movement is followed by a pitch change resulting in a very difficult string to tune stable.

    Which brings up the important idea that we need friction for stability.

    Every action is followed by a reaction. Every twist of the pin is followed by an untwisting. That's why lowering pitch to target and then adding a little clockwise twist, thinking that will create a higher tensioned NSL may be dangerous and unnecessary. The pin will untwist on its own raising NSL tension. If you twist clockwise too much, the pin will untwist on its own CCW and may leave the NSL too loose.

    Lube is not needed on long NSL of high friction pianos. High friction is good and may be the easiest and fastest string to tune stable, as long as the friction isn't in excess like those of old pianos with rust on the v-bar.
    Just pull it up to target and leave it. The friction ensures a tight NSL. The long NSL ensures the tension stays high. (See video below)

    Tuning a Stable String With a Long NSL.
    FREE CLASS - How to Get Superior Stability!
    YouTube remove preview
    FREE CLASS - How to Get Superior Stability!
    Classes have ended. For more information check out: https://howtotunepianos.com/superior-stability/
    View this on YouTube >


    Hearing small changes in pitch is essential for troubleshooting stability problems. ETDs can help but if you want to get superior results aurally, consider double string unison, DSU, where we tune two strings clean, judge the pitch, and then move one string. Pitch change is detected aurally as little as 0.3 cents.

    Using DSU to tune A4 (Listen at the end where I have an unstable string that keeps going sharp)
    Tuning A4 - Video Submission
    Internationalpianotechniciansschool remove preview
    Tuning A4 - Video Submission
    To pass this unit, you must use an ETD to tune A4 using DSU. Notes:Time limit: 5 minutes.Upload your video to YouTube and send me the link.
    View this on Internationalpianotechniciansschool >




    ------------------------------
    Mark Cerisano, RPT
    B.Sc.(Mech.Eng.), Dip.Ed.
    https://howtotunepianos.com
    http://mrtuner.com
    1-866-678-8637
    ------------------------------



  • 6.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 12 days ago
    I posed a question to the previous thread on Health-Related community, which didn't seem to get a response,  so I'd try here.
    Regarding the torsional ramifications of torque at both the high and low ends of functional range.  Can you show how both a torque of, say 50-60 inch-pounds vs. 120"lbs. vs 180"lbs could change the model of the effects on the NSL as well as altering actual hammer technique?

    Also, related (and probably a different thread again),  has anyone set up an experiment where the friction of the NSL could be  experimentally controlled, starting perhaps with an adjustable friction bearings in place of agraffe and CB?  That way, you COULD use the pitch of the NSL to calculate its tension, as well as see how the increase in friction changes the response of both NSL and SL.

    As Ron Nossaman would have said to me: "so why don't YOU do it"?

    ------------------------------
    David Skolnik [RPT]
    Hastings-on-Hudson NY
    917-589-2625
    ------------------------------



  • 7.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago

    Increased twisting is a function of pin block tightness. 

    More twisting = more untwisting which affects NSL tension when the hammer force is removed.


    The best way to measure NSL tension is as a function of pitch change after a test blow or the Bend Test. Often people want to complicate experimental procedures but we have to remember why we are interested in this subject - to produce superior stability.

    Pitch change after test
    Sharp = too high NSL tension.
    Flat = too low NSL tension.  

    There is a range of NSL tension that produce no pitch change when the hammer force is removed. This is called the Tension Band. 

    The Tension Band rises and narrows on hard blows requiring the NSL to be left high in the Tension Band for the best stability.

    This model has been proven accurate by all the experimental data I've done.
     



    ------------------------------
    Mark Cerisano, RPT
    B.Sc.(Mech.Eng.), Dip.Ed.
    https://howtotunepianos.com
    http://mrtuner.com
    1-866-678-8637
    ------------------------------



  • 8.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 11 days ago
    "High friction is good and may be the easiest and fastest string to tune stable, as long as the friction isn't in excess like those of old pianos with rust on the v-bar.
    Just pull it up to target and leave it. The friction ensures a tight NSL. The long NSL ensures the tension stays high."

    Mark, this echos my own experience.


    ------------------------------
    John Pope
    University of Kentucky School of Music
    Lexington, KY
    ------------------------------



  • 9.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 11 days ago
    Jon,
    What lubricant did you use and where did you apply it?

    ------------------------------
    Blaine Hebert
    Duarte CA
    626-795-5170
    ------------------------------



  • 10.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 11 days ago
    "High friction is good and may be the easiest and fastest string to tune stable, as long as the friction isn't in excess like those of old pianos with rust on the v-bar.
    Just pull it up to target and leave it. The friction ensures a tight NSL. The long NSL ensures the tension stays high."


    This has often led me to wonder: in certain pianos, is lubrication of the bearing points actually counterproductive? In a high-friction piano, if I can actually get the pitch where I want it, it tends to stay there. However, is it possible a bit of friction and a bit of lubricant can make things worse? The piano is still difficult to tune, and less stable because the string is more likely to slip?

    ------------------------------
    Scott Cole, RPT
    rvpianotuner.com
    Talent, OR
    (541-601-9033
    ------------------------------



  • 11.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 11 days ago
    The operant thought being, " if I can actually get the pitch where I want it".  This is the difficulty with high friction pianos...fine tuning is next to impossible. Instead, one gets it reasonably close and calls it good enough. Tuning and "voicing" the unison is next to impossible. So stable is possible but really fine tuning is pretty close to impossible, at least for me.



    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 12.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    I have found over and over that lubrication of CB with CBL is MOST helpful. I don't leave home without it. All those years I fought friction...I like having immediate response when I move the pins. Even if friction is tolerable, CBL makes my life easier.

    Pwg

    ------------------------------
    Peter Grey
    Stratham NH
    603-686-2395
    pianodoctor57@gmail.com
    ------------------------------



  • 13.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    You folks are all way smarter than me. That said, Jon Page's CBL has turned some of my most difficult old Kawai and Yamaha grands in recording situations into wonderfully tunable pianos. It even works on old Steinways. I've also discovered that if you use it on the  ends of the wires before you splice a string you get a tighter knot and it stabilizes more quickly.

    ------------------------------
    Karl Roeder
    Pompano Beach FL
    ------------------------------



  • 14.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
    This is interesting...I have tried lubricating recalcitrant pianos, and I have to say, I never do it any more.  I found it to be completely ineffective.  I used John's CBL as well as Protek. I have to assume that because of the way I use the lever, with no impacts whatsoever, the lube reacts differently to my smooth gentle  movements, or rather doesn't react at all.  Curious how those of you who find the lube useful manipulate the lever. Are you impact tuners predominantly?

    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 15.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    Almost always smooth.

    ------------------------------
    John Formsma, RPT
    New Albany MS

    Live not by fear or lies.
    ------------------------------



  • 16.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    I should say, almost always smooth for grand pianos. For verticals, I use the Reyburn CyberHammer impact lever most of the time.

    ------------------------------
    John Formsma, RPT
    New Albany MS

    Live not by fear or lies.
    ------------------------------



  • 17.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    I use a combination of smooth, impulse, or impact as the need arises. I also am careful in my "flexing" of pins...sometimes this is all that is required.

    Pwg

    ------------------------------
    Peter Grey
    Stratham NH
    603-686-2395
    pianodoctor57@gmail.com
    ------------------------------



  • 18.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
      |   view attached
    The latest formulation (as opposed to the initial formulation that Jim has) has more lube percentage and better assists reading fine torsion adjustments.

    Today, I pitch raised w/ o/p and tuned a Yamaha grand that was 20c flat. CBL made the job effortless. Lower friction meant less pin manipulation to target pitch by not having friction adversely affect pin torsion. A quicker realization of target stability.  I pulled it up 20 cents to an A439 target and tuned it at A439 because it will be going sharp soon to 441 or 442. It is right on the water in an exclusive Country Club (photo attached).

    On the high angle c/b of Aeolian grands (M&H, Chickering) that allow no finesse, the excessive drag was gone with the application of CBL.

    Karl, great tip! I'll do just that on my next splice.

    ------------------------------
    Regards,

    Jon Page
    mailto:jonpage@comcast.net
    http://www.pianocapecod.com
    ------------------------------



  • 19.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
    Its very interesting...I wonder how there can be such a discrepancy of experience on this?...at least me, in the singular, being the outlier (as usual)

    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 20.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
    Jim, maybe it's the 14" handle on you tuning hammer.

    ------------------------------
    Regards,

    Jon Page
    mailto:jonpage@comcast.net
    http://www.pianocapecod.com
    ------------------------------



  • 21.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    I've been skimming the posts in this thread but was finally able to sit down and read them all. This is a very important topic to me and I'd like to share my experience.

    Jim - You're not the only outlier, but I haven't tried lubricating friction points on enough pianos to say for sure that it doesn't work for me all the time. Frankly, because I've had it drilled into me so many times from my start to keep lubricants away from the strings, I'm afraid to try on "good" pianos. I tried it on the very worst rendering piano I tune and it made no difference at all. Perhaps it's because the piano was "that bad". Having said that, I suspect my hammer technique compensates for poor rendering pianos quite well. "Practice makes perfect."

    I'm kind of with Peter, but will say the same thing with many more words. ;-)

    I learned hammer technique mostly on my own and it has evolved into something that seems mostly standard as far as I can tell. I change or mix styles as needed depending on the condition of the pin block, friction, etc. I went through a "banging" phase that lasted a few years. I can honestly say with great confidence that I can create an incredibly stable tuning using hard blows, but I haven't used that method in several years. The advantage to hard blows is that they work. The disadvantage is that they are hard on both the ears and the hands. They obviously distort the sound so you can only use them to settle, not listen, and I've been told they can increase the temperature of the string more quickly than regular blows which can mess with the tuning, but I have not experienced a problem from this.

    We know why hammer technique matters: the pin is a dynamic thing, moving both within itself and within the wood, taking all kinds of bizarre twists and leanings one would thing might not even be possible, but the 2 chapter technical demos with lasers proved it. You can't (typically) just raise or lower the pin to pitch without expecting some rebound in one direction or another.

    We know why hard blows work: The extreme vibration of the string combined with the increase in tension on the speaking length make the point between the speaking lengh & non-speaking length move so the tension on the NSL is the same as the SL during that hard blow. When the SL is quiet, the tension on the NSL remains at that higher tension. When the string is struck, any increase in tension won't pull from the NSL because of the higher tension that was left there. If one were to try to get this situation with lever technique only (which is what I do now), there is a risk of getting the NSL tension too high or too low, so that during a hard blow the pitch could shift either direction.

    My quiet tuning method: Although the hard blow method worked, I needed to find a different way. I experimented with everything I could think of, and I finally realized there wasn't a single method that was best for all pianos (at least for me). I had to tune each differently depending on the pin block, friction, etc. I tune with smooth movements more often than not, but some pianos (or sections of pianos, or individual pins) require more jerky movements. With most pianos, I aim from above, lowering the pitch as I put a small bit of pressure on the lever toward the strings. (Yeah, I know; don't bother me telling me why that's "wrong". I know and I don't care; it works.)  By flexing the pin toward the string, I decrease the tension in the NSL enough to help it across bearing points. When the string is at pitch, I release the pressure and the pin flexing back to position puts extra tension on the NSL. How do I know how much? That's a practice thing; it took me a few months to get consistent with it on different pianos. On some occasions, jerky movements work better. Most of the time this is with tighter pins, but not all the time. How do I know? It's the practice thing again. I can't explain it; you just get a feel for it. On an extremely rare occasion, I have used a method demonstrated at a convention on a vertical: You put tension toward the strings as you pull up. When it just starts to hint at going above pitch, you let go. The natural reverse-unwind of the pin drops the pitch from the slightly over pitch position, but the return flex of the pin puts slightly more tension in the NSL. I've never been able to use this effectively on most pianos, but there were two, both Kawais, with "spongy" pin blocks and this method nailed them. Aside from these "methods", I vary from things in between, more or less, and off the wall depending on what works with any given piano on any given day.

    I appreciate this discussion. I'm finding it difficult to teach hammer technique and the more information I find, the better. I'm also finding that teaching hammer technique is much like using it on pianos: Each student, like each piano, is different and I must communicate details to them differently depending on their individual needs, learning style, physical coordination, and thought processes.

    Thank you!
    Maggie

    ------------------------------
    Maggie Jusiel, RPT
    Athens, WV
    (304)952-8615
    mags@timandmaggie.net
    ------------------------------



  • 22.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    I was thinking of editing my post but decided to add a "PS"; that's typical of me, anyway. ;-)

    Just thinking about being told that flexing the pin is bad because it reams out the top part of the wood in the block, so is a primary cause of loose pins because the top part of the wood is what grabs the pin. I believe this is incorrect for 2 reasons: 1) I have tuned pianos with very loose pins, completely letting go, and I was literally the second tuner to ever tune the piano, the first being when it was new, 20-30 years earlier. 2) If the top part of the pin is what held the pin, then hammering them in wouldn't cause them to hold.

    I don't flex the pin much, but I do flex it. So far, I have not had a piano with tight pins become loose under my care. We'll see if this happens in the future.

    Just an extra 2 cents. ;-)

    ------------------------------
    Maggie Jusiel, RPT
    Athens, WV
    (304)952-8615
    mags@timandmaggie.net
    ------------------------------



  • 23.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    Two points:

    1. Flexing the pin does not cause loose pins
    2. All pins get flexed whether you like it or not.

    ------------------------------
    David Love RPT
    www.davidlovepianos.com
    davidlovepianos@comcast.net
    415 407 8320
    ------------------------------



  • 24.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 8 days ago
    Just to emphasize David's post:

    <1Flexing the pin does not cause loose pins
    <2. All pins get flexed whether you like it or not.

    The notion that any traditional lever does not flex the pin is just mechanically incorrect, and physically impossible. However, nonetheless, it is taught universally as gospel truth. It is one of those massive bits of misinformation that slows down learners big time, and leaves them grasping hopelessly to understand the behavior of the stabilizing system. The notion that we can somehow avoid bending the pin, with a traditional lever, simply does not reflect the reality of the system.

    Understand how the lever flexes the pin automatically, and unavoidably, and you have a  seriously useful tool to both understand how you are distorting the NSL system when you tune, and more importantly, how you can use that distortion to your advantage.

    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 25.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    David & Jim: THANK YOU!!!

    ------------------------------
    Maggie Jusiel, RPT
    Athens, WV
    (304)952-8615
    mags@timandmaggie.net
    ------------------------------



  • 26.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 6 days ago
    Nailed it! 🙂

    ------------------------------
    Mark Cerisano, RPT
    B.Sc.(Mech.Eng.), Dip.Ed.
    https://howtotunepianos.com
    http://mrtuner.com
    1-866-678-8637
    ------------------------------



  • 27.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    "With most pianos, I aim from above, lowering the pitch as I put a small bit of pressure on the lever toward the strings"

    Maggie, when you do this, what is the position of your lever on a grand? I'm thinking that at 9 o'clock you automatically get some flex toward the string but at 12 (a more awkward position) you could vary the flex with more or less down pressure.

    Personally I need to kick the pounding habit and save my wrist. My latest practice has been to add a slight downward twist of the pin to the hard blow making it more effective and theoretically allowing for a softer hard blow. The wrist still hurts a bit. I think I need to go cold turkey

    ------------------------------
    John Pope
    University of Kentucky School of Music
    Lexington, KY
    ------------------------------



  • 28.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 8 days ago
    That's a really good question. With looser pins, I tend toward the 12:00 position because turning the lever doesn't flex the pin much, and that's what I want to do. The tighter the pin, the closer I move toward 2:00 or 10:00 depending on the piano and which hand I'm using. With grands, I tend to be right handed and have the lever between 12:00 & 2:00.

    I think the method you just described is probably going to work for you if you don't want to go cold turkey, but you're going to have to practice and trust yourself a bit. I went through a couple months where my tunings were less stable while I was figuring it out. I feel bad about that, but I had to do it for my own health. I think I've become a better tuner for it, particularly with my listening skills. I'm no longer afraid of loud blows, nor am I desensitized by them.

    Good luck!

    ------------------------------
    Maggie Jusiel, RPT
    Athens, WV
    (304)952-8615
    mags@timandmaggie.net
    ------------------------------



  • 29.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 6 days ago
    To me, it seems that everyone has the same experience. Obviously. We are all tuning pianos. They are just describing it differently.

    ------------------------------
    Mark Cerisano, RPT
    B.Sc.(Mech.Eng.), Dip.Ed.
    https://howtotunepianos.com
    http://mrtuner.com
    1-866-678-8637
    ------------------------------



  • 30.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    Hi Jon:

    What is in the CBL and how do I get some?

    Will Truitt

    ------------------------------
    William Truitt
    Bridgewater NH
    603-744-2277
    ------------------------------



  • 31.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
    Will,
    Please contact me privately.

    ------------------------------
    Regards,

    Jon Page
    mailto:jonpage@comcast.net
    http://www.pianocapecod.com
    ------------------------------



  • 32.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Member
    Posted 10 days ago
    To be clear, stability is excellent without the lube. By length of lever, do you mean lever technique only and not blows, or impact, has enough mechanical advantage to ease the string over the bearings?  That would make sense, and is definitely how I use the long lever, for minute rendering moves.

    ------------------------------
    Jim Ialeggio
    grandpianosolutions.com
    Shirley, MA
    978 425-9026
    ------------------------------



  • 33.  RE: Hammer Technique

    Registered Piano Technician
    Posted 10 days ago
    Could someone define "counterbearing" for me? Do you put CBL on the felt in front of the agraffes/capo, or where the string contacts the agraffe/capo bar? or both?

    ------------------------------
    John Pope
    University of Kentucky School of Music
    Lexington, KY
    ------------------------------